Guaranteed Transactions

Guaranteed transactions in Leviathan are designed to ensure that once a transaction is issued, it is deterministic, and its execution does not depend on external factors or subsequent ledger states. These transactions exclusively lock their inputs upon initiation, making them immune to alterations from other transactions. This means that while transactions occurring on the L2 are not settled until later, they are guaranteed to do so due to the guarantees inherent in the transaction structure mentioned above.

Guaranteed transactions are built upon the foundation of deterministic transactions. In the context of Cardano's extended Unspent Transaction Output (eUTXO) model, a deterministic transaction is one that will become invalid if the input state to it changes for the data it interacts with. This means that the outcome of the transaction is uniquely determined by its input state, without any additional input or dependency on external factors such as block hash or timestamp.

This deterministic validation is crucial because it allows users to predict the impact and outcome of a transaction before its actual execution on the blockchain. It also ensures that there are no unexpected script validation outcomes or failures and that the fees associated with the transaction are predictable. This predictability is in contrast to account-based blockchains like Ethereum, where transactions are indeterministic and can be influenced by other network activity, affecting the gas cost and the predictability of transactions.


  • Input Locking and Sequencing: Inputs to a transaction are locked and sequenced without waiting for blockchain confirmations, thus speeding up transaction chaining.

  • Deterministic Execution: Ensures that the transaction's outcome is predictable and immutable once issued, based on its inputs and the encoded transaction logic.

System Impact

  • Instant Finality: Transactions achieve finality instantly, enhancing the system's efficiency and reliability for financial operations where timing is critical.

  • Reduced Congestion: By ensuring transactions are independent of block confirmations, network congestion is minimized, enabling higher throughput.

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